Summer Student Program

at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

Projects list

This list is intended to inform potential participants of the Summer Student Program at JINR about the projects offered by particular supervisors. This list does not exhaust all the available projects of the Program and only reflects the projects wished to be announced by potential supervisors. If desired, the applicants may refer to the projects on the list in their motivation letters.


Description:

The project aims are to provide students with knowledge and practice in the computer simulation modelling, methods of statistical analysis of data to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the results, the fundamentals of wavelet analysis, applications of artificial neural networks and cluster analysis.
Possible project topics in 2016 Summer Student Program at JINR:
  • wavelet-analysis application for finding small peaks in experimental spectra;
  • wavelet-analysis application for separation and parameterization of close signals;
  • application of informational methods of social network analysis for revealing social group structures;
  • development of data compression program based on neural network application;
  • development of algorithms and programs for clustering responses of tracking detectors with a pad structure.
Requirements to students:
  • ability to program in C++ under Linux operational system;
  • basic skill how to use the ROOT library;
  • basic knowledge about artificial neural nets and wavelet transformations;
  • knowing English at least for reading.
Description:

Introduction

The phase dynamics in superconducting nanostructures has attracted a great attention because of rich and interesting physics from one side and perspective of applications from the other one.  The phase dynamics investigations of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors are interesting in the context of coherent radiation emission.

In during of the project period the student will study the physics of superconducting nanostructures and get the experience in the computer simulation of their physical characteristics.

Description of the project

The students will concentrate on the computer simulation of the phase dynamics in superconducting nanostructures. The example of the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) simulated for the stack with 10  intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) in high temperature superconductor is presented in left figure. The breakpoint shown in the inset is a parametric resonance point where the longitudinal plasma wave is created in this stack. In right figure we demonstrate the profile of the electric charge on the first superconducting layer. The details are in the recommended papers.

       
 

 
 

 


Figure:  (Left)- The simulated CVC of a stack of 10 IJJ.  The inset shows the enlarged breakpoint region (BPR) for the last branch in CVC. (Right)- Charge oscillation in the first layer in the beginning of B-S part of the BPR. The inset shows the oscillations in the layers 1 and 2.

The problems for students:

1. Investigation of the resonance phenomena in superconducting nanostructures  under microwave radiation.

2. Study of spintronics phenomena by numerical calculations

3. Investigation of the charge imbalance effect in superconducting nanostructures.

4. Majorana physics in Josephson junctions

Results of the project will be presented in the form of the report, which might be considered as a version for scientific paper.

Acceptance criteria

Some experience in computer simulation

Number of the participants

The number of the participants is limited by three students.

Recommended literature

1.    Werner Buckel, Reinhold Kleiner. Superconductivity. Fundamentals and Applications, Wiley-VCH,  2004.

2.    Yu. M. Shukrinov, I. R. Rahmonov, K. V. Kulikov and P. Seidel. E_ects of LC shunting on the Shapiro steps features of Josephson junction. - Europhysics Letters, 110 (2015)

3.    M. Maiti, K. M. Kulikov, K. Sengupta, Yu. M. Shukrinov. Josephson junction detectors for Majorana modes and Dirac fermions. Phys. Rev. B 92, 224501 (2015).

Supervisor of the project

Dr., Prof. Yury M. Shukrinov, leading researcher of BLTP, 100 scientific publications.

E-mail address: shukrinv@theor.jinr.ru   Phone: +7-49621-63844

Description:

Development of algorithms for solving the direct and inverse problems for the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation, which describes the structure of compact star

Required skills
Programing with C/C++, basic skills in numerical methods for DE, basics skills in thermodynamics and general relativity are desirable

Learning experience
The candidate will get experience in modelling of the realistic structures of compact stars, such as pulsars and white dwarfs, and in development of the effective algorithms of solving non-linear Des, additionally, he will learn the basic of the computational astrophysics.

Project duration
1 to 2 months

Project area
Mathematical Modeling and Computational Physics

Supervisors
A. Ayriyan (LIT), ayriyan@jinr.ru
H. Grigorian (LIT), hovik.grigorian@gmail.com

Recommended References
I. Bombaci, The Maximum Mass of a Neutron Star, Astronomy and Astrophysics 305 (1996), pp. 871–877
Description:

Development of algorithms of solving the optimization problem for the heat equation in order to find the optimal geometry of the thin plate to provide the given heat distribution on its surface

Required skills
Programing with C/C++, basic skills in numerical methods for PDE

Learning experience
The candidate will get experience in formulation and solving the optimization problems for PDE, and in development of the effective algorithms for its numerical realization

Project duration
1 to 2 months

Project area
Mathematical Modeling and Computational Physics

Supervisor
A. Ayriyan (LIT), ayriyan@jinr.ru

Recommended References
A. A. Samarskii, P. N. Vabishchevich. Computational Heat Transfer. NY: Wiley, Volume 1, 1996. - 418 p.
Description:

Description
Development of effective algorithms for finding the stationary solutions of the Schrodinger equation as an end state of time evolution process

Required skills
Programing with C/C++, basic skills in numerical methods for DE, basic knowleges in quantom mekhanics and operator algebra are desirable

Learning experience
The candidate will get experience in modelling of the particle bound states, and in development of the effective algorithms for solving non-linear eigenvalue problems

Project duration
1 to 2 months

Project area
Mathematical Modeling and Computational Physics

Supervisor
H. Grigorian (LIT), hovik.grigorian@gmail.com

Recommended References
Luca Nanni The Hydrogen Atom: a Review on the Birth of Modern Quantum Mechanics (англ.). — arΧiv: 1501.05894.
William H. Press, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling, Brian P. Flannery. Numerical Recipes 3rd Edition: The Art of Scientific Computing 3rd Edition. NY: Cambridge University Press. —   1256 p.
Description:

An example of a CMS event with large total transverse energy (ST=2.6 TeV) and high jet multiplicity (9 jets, denoted by light purple cones and lines)
The search for microscopic black holes at the LHC is motivated by the hierarchy problem — the huge observed difference between the strengths of the electroweak and gravitational forces. The 
ADD model (Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali) offers an explanation by introducing extra dimensions of space beyond the usual three: Only gravity “feels” these extra dimensions in space, while all other interactions (electromagnetism, strong and weak forces) are constrained to a 3D slice (or “brane”) of a multi-dimensional Universe. This effectively dilutes the gravitational force and makes it appear weaker to an observer who “lives” on a 3D brane. One consequence of such large (compared to Planck scale) extra dimensions is that when two particles approach each other very closely in a high-energy collision they could feel the full strength of gravity in the extra dimensions, which may be sufficient for them to form a microscopic back hole.

Details are here: Phys. Lett. B 697 (2011) 434
Description:

In the framework of this field there are three different projects:  Project_1Project_2Project_3
Description:

Description of thermodynamical equlibrium between cold hadronic and quark matter phases under conditions of compact stars.
 
Required skills
Programing with C/C++, basics skills in thermodynamics, particularly the Gibbs condition for phase equilibrium
 
Learning experience
The candidate will get experience in modelling of the phase transition with uncertain parameter of the interfacial tension and application in the compact star physics.
 
Project duration
1 to 2 months
 
Project area
Mathematical Modeling and Computational Physics
 
Supervisors
H. Grigorian (LIT), hovik.grigorian@gmail.com
A. Ayriyan (LIT), ayriyan@jinr.ru
 
References
Norman K. Glendenning. First-order phase transitions with more than one conserved charge: Consequences for neutron stars. Physical Review D 46 (1992), 1274-1287
Description:

Development of parallel pipe-line algorithm for solution of the initial-boundary-value problem for parabolic and elliptic PDE using difference methods.
 
Required skills
Programing with C/C++, basic skills in numerical methods for PDE
 
Learning experience
The candidate will get experience in development of the unusual parallel algorithm for solving parabolic PDE
 
Project duration
1 to 2 months
 
Project area
Mathematical Modeling and Computational Physics
 
Supervisor
A. Ayriyan (LIT), ayriyan@jinr.ru
 
References
A. A. Samarskii, P. N. Vabishchevich. Computational Heat Transfer. NY: Wiley, Volume 1, 1996. - 418 p.
P. Purcz. Parallel algorithm for spatially one-and two-dimensional initial-boundary-value problem for a parabolic equation // Kybernetika (2001), vol. 37, iss. 2, pp. 171-181
Description:

Tier-1 computing center for processing of the CMS data is situated in the laboratory of information technologies in JINR. Tier-1 unites more than 2000 of computing cores and more than 5 PB of storage. In order to increase reliability and reduce down-time of the center the new monitoring system based on Nagios was introduced. It collects data from the lowest level: temperature, CPU and RAM load, etc.
But it is not enough. Critical software and services fails on Tier-1 sometimes. Service monitoring is essential for keeping track on these fails. To increase the up-time of the center new monitoring system development was initiated. This new monitoring system consists of two subsystems: data collection (Python, Beautiful Soup, PostgreSQL) and data visualisation(Django, javascript, jquery, mvc, different visualisation libraries for js).
Now we have a task to improve the development process (DevOps) by introducing new technologies and techniques. We look for a candidate with a good knowledge of:
   1. Web-development
   2. Git
   3. Build systems(grunt or grub)
   4. JavaScript
   5. Linux.
The following skills would be an advantage: Python, Django, continuous integration, unittests.
Description:

Development of data visualization components for web UI.

Required Skills:
- Ability to apply fundamental engineering principles (Separation of Concerns, Loose Coupling, Less is More, Abstraction, Modularity/Reusability, SOLID, DRY, YAGNI)
- Object-oriented development (familiarity with classes, properties, methods, constructors, design patterns)
- Web development (familiarity with HTML, CSS, Javascript, APIs)

Learning Experience:
The candidate will get experience of a technology development with a team of professionals.

Project duration:
6-8 weeks

Project Area:
Computer Vision

Supervisor:
S. Hnatic (LIT), drhnatic@drhnatic.com

Description:

General info: 

NOvA is a new generation off-axis long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to measure muon (anti)neutrino oscillation parameters. The NOvA experimental setup consists of a large volume far detector situated at a distance of 810km and a smaller near detector at 1km, which is used to perform relative measurements.  Operating in total for 6 years in the intense neutrino and antineutrino NuMI beams at Fermilab the NOvA experiment will achieve unprecedented sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy and parameters of lepton CP parity violation – two fundamental questions essential for our understanding of the neutrino role in particle physics, cosmology and possible new physics.

NOvA experiment started operation in 2014 and a number of important measurements have been performed on the basis of statistics collected so far: an electron neutrino appearance signal measurement has allowed for the restriction of the hierarchy-deltaCP parameter space, a muon neutrino  disappearance signal was measured confirming oscillation parameters Δm2 and sinθ with high precision.    

Continuing the data collection, and importantly, altering neutrino and anti-neutrino beams, NOvA can unambiguously resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy at >95% C.L. for over a third of possible values of 
δ. For other values of this CP violation parameter, NOvA will provide δ-dependent hierarchy determination plus improved measurements of θ13θ23, |∆m223|, and δ itself, which is also very important for global analysis of the neutrino oscillation data.    

Dubna team: 

The JINR group in NOvA has contributed significantly to the NOvA results. The Remote Operation Center (ROC-Dubna) was developed at JINR, giving the possibility to fully participate in the data taking and quality monitoring. The JINR computer infrastructure on the basis of GRID and Cloud technologies was developed. It is efficiently used for the home-based running of jobs and is also  a part of the NOvA distributed computing resources system for the use at peak loads (e.g., before conferences). The NOvA electronics test bench was set up at JINR and provided important measurements of electronics parameters used for simulation and calibration.  

Members of the JINR group are deeply involved in the ongoing analyses and in the preparation of new ones. This comprises the νμ, νe, Supernova, Slow monopole, Cosmic Ray and Near Detector physics teams. They are also involved in the development of simulation and analyses software, and are serving as a Detector Simulation convener, Offline and DAQ Software Release Managers, DAQ, DDT and ROC experts, etc.

Research task for a summer student:

1   Improvements of the particle identifications algorithm with convolutional neural network (convolutional visual network).

Usefull links

1) https://www-nova.fnal.gov
2) 
http://astronu.jinr.ru/wiki/index.php/NOvA_Experiment
3) 
https://cdcvs.fnal.gov/redmine/projects/novaart/wiki
4) 
http://inspirehep.net/record/1444342

The task requires working knowledge of modern computer programming and scripting languages (C++, Python, ROOT). Linux experience is useful to quick start. Statistics knowledge, machine learning skills would be much appreciated.

Description:

Прецизионная лазерная метрология для ускорителей и детекторных комплексов

АННОТАЦИЯ

Проект лазерного измерительного комплекса, включает Лазерную Реперную Линию,  Прецизионный Лазерный Инклинометр и Абсолютный Измеритель Длины. Он предназначен для метрологического сопровождения  современных ускорителей-коллайдеров и крупномасштабных детекторных комплексов.

Лазерная Реперная Линия с неопределённостью в пространственной координате луча менее десяти микрон обеспечивает прецизионную юстировку основных структурных компонентов коллайдеров и спекторометров. При помощи ЛРЛ также возможен on-line контроль пространственной конфигурации отдельных элементов детекторного комплекса при проведении эксперимента.

Прецизионный Лазерный Инклинометр измеряет угловые микросейсмические движения поверхности Земли  с точностью 10-9 рад, что открывает возможность стабилизации пространственного положения ЛРЛ, параметров пучков, увеличения  светимость коллайдера, повыение точности измерений углов и импульсов в спектрометрах.

Абсолютный Измеритель Длины с точностью измерения 1 мкм на длине 10 м позволит связать координатные системы секторов коллайдера, разделённых детекторным комплексом.

Предполагается, что представленные метрологические инструменты будут работать как единый Лазерный измерительный комплекс во время наборных сеансов и плановых остановках коллайдера.

The Precision Laser Metrology for Accelerators and Detector Complexes

ABSTRACT

The Project proposes the creation of Laser Measurement Complex including the Laser Fiducial Line, Precision Laser Inclinometer and Absolute Distance Meter. The Complex is intended for solving of the tasks of the metrology accompanying of modern large scale accelerators (colliders) and detector systems.

The LASER FIDUCIAL LINE serves to precision adjustment of the accelerator structure units on micron level. The on-line control of the space configuration of internal components of detector complex is also possible allowing the significant decrease of the components space location uncertainties.

The PRECISION LASER INCLINOMETER will measure with 10-9 rad accuracy the microseismic ground motion making possible to improve the space stabilization of the colliding beams parameters in the collision area leading to luminosity increase and improving the momentum and angular measurement precision.

The ABSOLUTE DISTANCE METER with 1 micron measurement precision on the distance by 10 meters will solve on new accuracy level the important task to connect the collider's coordinate systems separated by detector complex.

It is assumed that the above new generation metrology tools will act as unite Laser Measurement Complex during the data taking Runs and scheduled technical stops.

http://indico.jinr.ru/getFile.py/access?contribId=24&resId=0&materialId=1&confId=1314

Description:

The aim of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) located at CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva (Switzerland), is to explore the fundamental properties of the matter at the elementary level. One of the four main experiments located at the LHC accelerator is ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment).

 

The main goal of the project is the measurement of the non-identical charged kaon correlation functions in p-Pb collisions registered by the ALICE detector. The measurements will be performed as a function of centrality of the event and transverse pair momentum. For those purposes the experimental data collected in 2013 and 2016 will be used.

 

            It is believed that up to a few milliseconds after the Big Bang, the Universe was in the state called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Moreover, this unique state should be available in the cores of neutron stars.

 

Such experiments as ALICE are dedicated for creating the QGP in the laboratory conditions. To do that protons and lead ions are accelerated at very high energies at the LHC. When they reach the specified energy they are collided in four collision points of the beam (in case the LHC).

 

What is QGP really? The matter that exists everywhere is built with quarks and gluons. In the ordinary matter quarks are confined in hadrons (baryons (example: protons), mesons (example: kaons)) but… if the matter reaches very high energy or very high baryon density, quarks and gluons can behave as free particles. This state is called as Quark Gluon Plasma.

 

One of the tools used to describe systems created during the high energy collisions is the femtoscopic correlation technique. Femtoscopic correlations are the tool to measure directly the spatial and temporal scales of the extremely small and short-lived systems created in particle or nuclear collisions with accuracy of 1 fm. The source radii extracted from two-particle correlations at low relative momenta describes the system at kinetic freeze-out, i.e. the last stage of particle interactions.

 

New study of K+K- also could be used to extract radii and lambda parameters. It is important to note that K+K- are induced by three different distinct sources: Coulomb interaction in final state, strong interaction through a0(980) and f0(980) and strong final state through phi meson. In case of K+K- the interaction is not precisely known.

 

The obtained results will allow to deepen knowledge of the physical laws governing the p-Pb collisions at the highest achievable energies.

 

We look for a candidate with a good knowledge of:

- C++,
- ROOT, AliROOT,
- Nuclear Physics

 


Project duration

1 to 2 months

Description:

     Experimental and theoretical studies of direct photon production in hadronic collisions essentially expand our insights about multiparticle production mechanisms. These photons are useful probes to investigate nuclear matter at all stages of the interaction. Soft photons (SP) play a particular role in these studies. Until now we have no explanation for the experimentally observed excess SP yield. These photons have low energy transverse moment pT < 0.1 GeV/c, |x|      In theoretical works, developed in the field of pion condensate search there is an indication on the possible connection of this condensate with an anomalous soft photon yield. Our Collaboration has succeeded finding out behavior of scaled variance of neutral pion number in the high total multiplicity region that testifies to formation of pion condensate. Research of soft photon yield in proton, proton-nuclei and nuclear interactions and establishment of connection of anomalous soft photons with Bose-Einstein condensate will be the following experimental studies at Nuclotron JINR. Also we prepare extensive physical program based at photon detection by electromagnetic calorimeter.                                                                                        
     The manufactured ourselves electromagnetic calorimeter allows registering photons from several keV. Research of a soft photon yield has been begun in nuclear interactions at 3.5 GeV/nucl at Nuclotron . It is planned to investigate the dependence of their yield on multiplicity of charged, neutrals and total multiplicity in the high multiplicity region. Such research is unique and allows coming closer to understanding of a physical picture of soft photon formation and the nature of hadronization.                                                                                  
    During summer practice students will take account at making of electronic devices for registration of soft photons by electromagnetic calorimeter based on "shashlyk" moduls. It is necessary to lower energy threshould of gamma-quantum registration. Also very important work before experiment is Monte Carlo simulation of setup performance. We hope that students will get different experience at the experimental and theoretical activity.





Description:

In this project, it will be proposed to carry out research on a topic that is in the active development stage in the CMS experiment. The work includes:
 
- study of the specialized software of the CMS experiment and built-in modules for simulation of hadron-hadron collisions (generators Pythia, Herwig) and jet reconstruction software (FastJets), package for the statistical analysis (ROOT);
 
- study of the fundamentals of the physics of jets (from the primary parton to the perturbative and nonperturbative stages of jet formation),
- Performing work on the modeling of physical processes for the measurement of charge multiplicity in quark and gluon jets at the CMS.

Requirements for a candidate:
  
- Basic knowledge of C ++,
  
- Fundamentals of elementary particle physics.

Description:

Введение

В рамках научной программы по изучению горячей и плотной барионной материи в ОИЯИ реализуется проект по созданию нового ускорительного комплекса на встречных пучках NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) на базе существующего ускорителя Нуклотрон.

Коллайдер NICA предусматривает две точки пересечения пучков, в одной из которых будет располагаться экспериментальная установка - Многоцелевой детектор (Multi-Purpose Detector, MPD).

Основным детектором для регистрации треков заряженных частиц и их идентификации в MPD является время-проекционная камера (Time-Projection Chamber - TPC).

               Краткое описание детектора TPC/MPD

ТРС представляет собой двойную дрейфовую камеру, симметричную относительно центрального высоковольтного электрода. Соответственно рабочий газовый объем камеры также разделен этим центральным электродом.

Для считывания информации в ТРС используются по 12 пропорциональных камер (ReadOut Chamber, ROC) с катодной пэдовой плоскостью считывания, которые симметрично расположены на торцах ТРС. Пэдовая плоскость выполнена по технологии многослойной печатной платы.

Чтобы обеспечить требуемую точность измерения координат треков заряженных частиц, неоднородность электрического поля в дрейфовом объёме детектора не должна превышать 10-4.

Однородное электрическое поле внутри детектора создаётся системой формирующих поле электродов (field cage), которые представляют из себя полосы алюминизированного майлара. Ширина полос 13 мм, они располагаются с шагом 15 мм на специальных поддерживающих трубках вдоль стенок корпуса рабочего объёма ТРС.

Более подробную информацию о мега-проекте NICA и эксперименте MPD можно прочитать, например, на веб-сайтах: http://nica.jinr.ru/, http://mpd.jinr.ru/.

Более подробно о конструкции детектора TPC/MPD и информацию по некоторым предварительным расчётам электрического поля внутри TPC [1, 4, 5], можно почитать в источниках:

1.  Time Projection Chamber for Multi-Purpose Detector at NICA. Technical Design Report (rev.04), A. Averyanov, A. Bazhazhin, et al., Dubna, VBLHEP JINR, 2016, http://nica.jinr.ru/files/TDR_MPD/TpcTdr_26-05-2016.pdf;

2. International Journal of Humanities and Natural Sciences (Международный журнал гуманитарных и естественных наук), Nov., 2016, V. 2, № 1, p. 208-213, STATUS OF THE TIME PROJECTION CHAMBER FOR THE MPD/NICA PROJECT, A. Averyanov, A. Bazhazhin, et al.,
http://intjournal.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Mezhdunorodnyj-ZHurnal-1-tom-2-1.pdf;

3. Acta Physica Polonica B (Proceedings Supplement), 2016, V. 9, № 2, p. 155-164, TIME PROJECTION CHAMBER FOR MULTI-PURPOSE DETECTOR AT NICA, A. Averyanov, A. Bajajin, et al.,
http://www.actaphys.uj.edu.pl/fulltext?series=Sup&vol=9&page=155;

4. Труды XVIII Международной научной конференции молодых ученых и специалистов к 105-летию Н.Н. Боголюбова (ОМУС-2014), 24-28 фев., 2014, ОИЯИ, Дубна, ISBN 978-5-9530-0384-1, с. 117-120, Время-проекционная камера (TPC) детектора MPD для коллайдера NICA, Ю.В. Заневский, С.В. Разин, А.Г. Бажажин, и др.,
http://omus.jinr.ru/conference2014/conference_proceedings_2014.pdf;

5. Труды XVIII Международной научной конференции молодых ученых и специалистов к 105-летию Н.Н. Боголюбова (ОМУС-2014), 24-28 фев., 2014, ОИЯИ, Дубна, Россия, ISBN 978-5-9530-0384-1, с. 252-255, Результаты моделирования электрического поля в TPC используя программный пакет ANSYS Maxwell, Ю.В. Заневский, С.В. Разин, А.Г. Бажажин,
http://omus.jinr.ru/conference2014/conference_proceedings_2014.pdf;

6. Journal of Instrumentation, 2014, V. 9, p. С07-016, The Multi-Purpose Detector for JINR heavy-ion collider, Stepan Razin on behalf of the MPD group,
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/9/07/C07016;

7. Journal of Instrumentation, 2014, V. 9, p. C09-036, Time-Projection Chamber for the MPD NICA project, A. Averyanov, A. Bajajin, et al.,
http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/9/09/C09036/refs;

8. Ядерная физика и инжиниринг, 2013, Том 4, № 9-10, с. 867-878, Время-проекционная камера детектора MPD на коллайдерном комплексе NICA, А.В. Аверьянов, А.Г. Бажажин, и др., http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=20991936.

         Описание проекта

        Целью проекта является расчет (моделирование) неоднородности электрического (электростатического) поля внутри TPC, которую можно разбить на следующие пункты:

1. Рассчитать с помощью 2D и 3D моделирования электрическое поле (линии напряжённости электростатического поля) внутри TPC, используя программный пакет ANSYS Maxwell и по возможности Garfield. Визуализировать промоделированное электрическое поле внутренней части TPC в 2D и 3D виде (сделать чертежи конструкции TPC и электрического поля рабочего объёма) в какой-нибудь из двух (или в обоих) программных пакетов (ANSYS Maxwell и Garfield).

2. Сравнить рассчитанные величины и визуализацию электрического поля внутри TPC с посчитанными ранее аналогичными значениями и рисунками.

3. Рассчитать и представить детальную визуализацию электрического поля внутри ROC камеры TPC, формирующегося с учётом проволочных плоскостей с поданными на них соответствующими напряжениями.

4. Провести (рассчитать) оптимизацию величины напряжения на первом и последнем электроде системы полеформирующих электродов (field cage) путем минимизации искажения формы электрического поля внутри TPC. Проделать аналогичные расчёты для вторых электродов системы field cage, если совсем убрать первые (предыдущие) электроды.

5. Рассчитать влияние объёмного заряда положительных ионов на форму электрического поля внутри TPC в зависимости от его величины.

P.S.: Допускается сделать только часть пунктов за время летней студенческой программы ОИЯИ.


          Требования к кандидатам:

      Иметь опыт работы с чертёжными и/или расчётными программами для моделирования. Владеть программным пакетом ANSYS Maxwell или/и Garfield, либо уметь относительно быстро осваивать подобные программы.

          Руководители проектов:

начальник сектора НЭОМД (MPD) ЛФВЭ к.ф.-м.н. Мовчан С.А.,
e
-mail: movchansa@yandex.ru, раб./тел.: +7-49621-65933;

научный сотрудник НЭОМД (MPD) ЛФВЭ Бажажин А.Г.,
e-mail:
albazhazhin@mail.ru, раб./тел.: +7-49621-64142.

Description:

Overview

Our group is involved in two neutrino oscillation experiments with reactor electron antineutrinoes: the currently running Daya Bay experiment (data analysis) and currently prepared JUNO experiment. Both experiments are based in China.

Our work includes:
  • Neutrino oscillation parameters determination and search for non-standard oscillation effects in the Daya Bay experiment.
  • Reactor antineutrino flux measurement in the Daya Bay experiment.
  • Determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters and neutrino mass hierarchy in JUNO experiment (future). Experiment sensitivity study.
  • Study of the optical parameters of the large Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for JUNO experiment. Study of the impact of the PMT response on the JUNO performance.
We are doing the analysis in our own software and our tasks are closely connected to both physics and programming.


Daya Bay 

Daya Bay neutrino experiment is the first medium base experiment to observe reactor electron antineutrino disappearance with significance higher than 5 standard deviations and is the first reactor experiment to measure mass splitting Δm²₃₂. Daya Bay has measured antineutrino mixing angle θ₁₃ with unprecedented precision.
 
Antineutrino flux from 6 nuclear reactors with a total nominal thermal power of 17.4 GW is observed by 8 identically designed 20 kt liquid scintillator detectors. Experimental halls located on average distances of 500 m, 600 m and 1.5 km from the reactors see slightly different antineutrino flux due to oscillations. The comparison of the observed antineutrino spectrum between far and near detectors gives a flux model independent handle to measure oscillation parameters. The ratio of the total number of events is related mostly to the oscillation amplitude sin²2θ₁₃ while relative spectral distortion is almost exclusively determined by mass splitting.
 
Other goals of the experiment include the measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, sterile neutrino search, new physics and non-standard interactions searches.
 

JUNO
 
Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory — is planned new generation precision experiment with reactor electron antineutrinos, proposed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. 
 
JUNO detector will have spherical shape with diameter of 35 m filled by 20 kt liquid scintillator and equipped by 20 000 photomultiplier tubes installed with almost maximal geometrical coverage. Such a coverage is needed in order to maximize the light efficiency and reach unprecedented energy resolution of 3% at 1 MeV.
 
The detector will be installed on a distance of 52 km from Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants. On this baseline the observed antineutrino spectrum will be heavily distorted by neutrino oscillations: the spectrum itself will have fine oscillations with period of order of hundreds of keV. Given the energy resolution of 3% the measurement of the period and phase of these fine oscillations is a handle to precisely measure neutrino mass splitting Δm²₃₂. More important, JUNO will be able to determine the sign of Δm²₃₂ with significance higher than 3 standard deviations within 6 years after starting the data taking in 2020. The determination of the mass splitting sign is equivalent to the measuring the mass hierarchy: normal hierarchy means that third neutrino mass state is heavier than first and second, while for inverted hierarchy the third neutrino mass state is the lightest.
 
Apart from Δm²₃₂ JUNO will be able to measure other oscillation parameters Δm²₂₁ и θ₁₂ with precision better than 1%. The experiment will be also sensitive to the signals of atmospheric neutrino, geo-neutrino and supernova neutrino.
 
 
Summer program tasks include
 
1) First task for the summer program is concerned with our own software Global Neutrino Analysis (GNA), intended for the statistical analysis of the data of neutrino experiments (reactor, accelerator and atmospheric). The plan includes the improvement of the module for the statistical analysis via Feldman-Cousins method (as described in the thesis by Taichenachev in 'Other reading'). This is very computationally intense procedure and will greatly benefit if defined in parallel way. Of course this is preliminary and quite difficult task that may be modified during the summer program.

2) Second task is also connected with GNA software and is concerned with implemntation of laternative statistical tests: poisson likelihood function, CLs method, etc.

3) Third task is concerned with analytical and numerical study of the PMT efficiency for the JUNO experiment.

Other reading

The scope of the current work of our group may be determined from 
 
Description:

The Slow Control system is not a subject of physics studies, but it can become an inalienable part of any physical experiment. The information from all the detectors has to be saved very quickly. But each detector needs to have special conditions, such as temperature, gas pressure, voltage. The Slow Control System allows one to measure, monitor, and control all those parameters.  Thus the Slow Control System (SCS) is an electronic system intended to support and enable operation of complex equipment for any physical experiment, for example, for detectors in high energy physics experiments. This kind of system should be modular, and each module should be able to adapt itself to other experiments, that is, it has to be scalable. Many different types of users will have access to this system. It is rather obvious that a shifter should have totally different access rights in comparison with those of management or maintenance personnel. The majority of program sources should be open, in case it is required to do additional coding. It is necessary to save all parameters and their maximal and minimal values. Due to this fact the EqDb database has been created.

Summer Student will be working on cooling and monitoring system for the RACK cabinets for the Slow Control system.

Description:

SPD is the planned detector for spin physics at the future collider NICA constructiong at JINR. It will be used to perform detailed study of production of Drell-Yan pairs, prompt photons and charmonia in collision of polarized proton and deutron beams with CM energy up to 26 GeV. Investigation of the detector properties based on the Monte Carlo simulation technique is needed at the presents stage.

Requirements:

C++, linux. 
Description:

Reporting the topic of student internship (summer 2018)

Programs:
Master Thesis, Bachelor Thesis, Engineering Work, Summer Students, Slow Control System, TeFeNica.

Project: NICA-MPD (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility-Multi-Purpose Detector)

Cluster Name: Robots in Great Physics Experiments.

Senior Leader: prof. dr hab. Jan Pluta, pluta@if.pw.edu.pl 

Leader: prof. dr hab. inż. Adam Kisiel, kisiel@if.pw.edu.pl

Supervisor: mgr inż. Marek Peryt, Marek.Peryt@pw.edu.pl

Topic:

Rover Vehicle - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments

Engineering and technical tasks:

Overview

The Rover Vehicle - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments, is an Project, versatile and fun starting point for a variety of mechatronics and robotics design Projects. It is a ground vehicle controlled by NImyRIO and equipped with motors and sensors. You can start by following instructions to build the Rover Vehicle - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments, and run the provides code. This will allow you to tele operate the rover to travel and grasp objects with its pincer end effector. You can expand the Rover‘s functionality so that it can utilize controls algorithms and complete tasks.

Base Functionality

·         The two front wheels are driven independently of one another by DC motors. The back wheel is used for balance and can rotate freely.

·         The DC motor speed are controlled using PWM, and their directions are controlled using a digital line (this wiring is done for you via the motor board).

·         The Rover has differential steering, meaning that the direction of the Rover can be changed by varying the relative rotational velocity of DC motors.

·         The IR infrared range finder data is read through an analogue line and converted to centimetres. It can be used to detect distance from other objects or distinguish colour / material differences based on IR reflectivity.

·         The pincer end reflector is controlled by a servo motor. The position of the servo motors is controlled by PWM.

·         A VI will be deployed NImyRIO, enabling it to output motor signals, input sensor data, and transfer data to and from a host computer via Wi-Fi.

·         A VI will run of a host computer for teleoperation. Here the User can input movement commands, open and close the pincers, and view the IR sensors data.

Expansion and Teaching Options

·         Implement open-loop and closed-loop control algorithms in LabView to precisely control the Rover’s positions and velocity.

·         Use the IR sensor to detect objects. You can write LabView code to avoid the objects or grasp them with the pincers.

·         Use the IR sensor detect a line, and write LabView code to follow it.

·         Program the Rover to operate autonomously, so that it doesn’t require user from the host.

·         Add additional features the Rover.

·         Example ideas: USB camera ultrasonic sensor custom 3-D printed parts.

Job description:

The work is an important part of the NICA-MPD Project, carried out in the international research and development centre JINR Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia), Poland has been a member since 1956 and has a significant contribution to its scientific and research achievements.

The work consists in discerning and formulating the needs of a group of specialists from Polish scientific and research institutions, SCS Slow Control System, MPD detector control system and NICA complex. The proposed engineering and technical task combines most of the characteristics of engineering and research work.

Range of tasks to be carried out by the Apprentice:

The Rover Vehicle - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments, relates to controls concepts like relative stability robust stability and fundament takes consisting of prefabricated components and electronic modules, should be designed and developed and programmed in NI LabView. The subject is required to understand the theoretical knowledge and to analyse the topic at the theoretical and practical level. A working prototype (model) is planned. Then, technical analysis of the system and its functionality will be performed. Applications should be used when formulating subsequent technical and functional requirements, the robot's real measuring system. Define the required algorithms and write the software. The apprentice will perform tests and study the work of the finished robot. As a result of the subject matter, a working robot system should be created. At the end, you should give a 15-minute lecture in English about the work done. After the internships (in November 2018) a conference in Warsaw is planned: Slow Control System 2018, in which the Apprentice should take an active part by giving a thematic lecture. The publication of this work is planned.

Note:

It is possible to continue cooperation, for example in the form of an engineering or a master's thesis, as well as further scientific contacts.

Bibliography.

www.jinr.ru

www.ni.com

www.nica.if.pw.edu.pl

The MultiPurpose Detector – MPD to Study Heavy Ion Collisions at NICA; (CDR Conceptual Design Report) Version 1.4;  Project leaders: A. N. Sissakian, A. S. Sorin, V. D. Kekelidze.

Description:

Reporting the topic of student internship (summer 2018)

Programs:
Master Thesis, Bachelor Thesis, Engineering Work, Summer Students, Slow Control System, TeFeNica.

Project: NICA-MPD (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility-Multi-Purpose Detector)

Cluster Name: Robots in Great Physics Experiments.

Senior Leader: prof. dr hab. Jan Pluta, pluta@if.pw.edu.pl 

Leader: prof. dr hab. inż. Adam Kisiel, kisiel@if.pw.edu.pl

Supervisor: mgr inż. Marek Peryt, Marek.Peryt@pw.edu.pl

Topic:

Self-Balancing - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments

Engineering and technical tasks:

Overview

The Self-Balancing - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments, is an Project, that demonstrates how control concepts taught in engineering Group can applied. The Project, is complex closed-loop control system that autonomously balances itself. It collects feedback from multiple sensors, including the on-board accelerometer of the NI my RIO, a gyroscope, and encoders built into both motors. It uses a complementary filter and a PD Proportional Differential controller implemented in LabView to stand upright.

Base Functionality

·         The wheels are rotated by DC motors, which operate independently and revive PWM data to control their speeds.

·         The encoders built into each motor measure relative position, and communicate with NI my RIO using special encoder digital lines.

·         The on-board three-axis accelerometer of NImyRIO measures static and dynamic acceleration.

·         The gyroscope measures rotation velocity, and communications with NImyRIO using the I2C Communication Protocol.

·         A complementary filter is used on the accelerometer and gyroscope data to eliminate the High Frequency Noise HFN of the accelerometer and the Low Frequency Noise LFN of gyroscope.

·         A PD controller is used to control the motor positions relative to one-another.

·         NImyRIO connects to the host PC via Wi-Fi.

·         The LabView code can either be run from the host PC or deployed as start-up executable.

·         The Self-Balancing Measuring Robot for Great Physical Experiments is enabled by pushing the built-in button on NImyRIO.

Expansion and Teaching Options

·         Learn how the Self-Balancing - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments, relates to controls concepts like relative robust stability, and fundamental design tension.

·         Advance Challenge: Edit the LabView VI code, of the Self-Balancing - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments, to enable it to travel on command.

Job description:

The work is an important part of the NICA-MPD Project, carried out in the international research and development centre JINR Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia), Poland has been a member since 1956 and has a significant contribution to its scientific and research achievements.

The work consists in discerning and formulating the needs of a group of specialists from Polish scientific and research institutions, SCS Slow Control System, MPD detector control system and NICA complex. The proposed engineering and technical task combines most of the characteristics of engineering and research work.

Range of tasks to be carried out by the Apprentice:

The Self-Balancing - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments, relates to controls concepts like relative stability robust stability and fundament takes consisting of prefabricated components and electronic modules, should be designed and developed and programmed in NI LabView. The subject is required to understand the theoretical knowledge and to analyse the topic at the theoretical and practical level. A working prototype (model) is planned. Then, technical analysis of the system and its functionality will be performed. Applications should be used when formulating subsequent technical and functional requirements, the robot's real measuring system. Define the required algorithms and write the software. The apprentice will perform tests and study the work of the finished robot. As a result of the subject matter, a working robot system should be created. At the end, you should give a 15-minute lecture in English about the work done. After the internships (in November 2018) a conference in Warsaw is planned: Slow Control System 2018, in which the Apprentice should take an active part by giving a thematic lecture. The publication of this work is planned.

Note:

It is possible to continue cooperation, for example in the form of an engineering or a master's thesis, as well as further scientific contacts.

Bibliography.

www.jinr.ru

www.ni.com

www.nica.if.pw.edu.pl

The MultiPurpose Detector – MPD to Study Heavy Ion Collisions at NICA; (CDR Conceptual Design Report) Version 1.4;  Project leaders: A. N. Sissakian, A. S. Sorin, V. D. Kekelidze.

Description:

Reporting the topic of student internship (summer 2018)

Programs:
Master Thesis, Bachelor Thesis, Engineering Work, Summer Students, Slow Control System, TeFeNica.

Project: NICA-MPD (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility-Multi-Purpose Detector)

Cluster Name: Robots in Great Physics Experiments.

Senior Leader: prof. dr hab. Jan Pluta, pluta@if.pw.edu.pl 

Leader: prof. dr hab. inż. Adam Kisiel, kisiel@if.pw.edu.pl

Supervisor: mgr inż. Marek Peryt, Marek.Peryt@pw.edu.pl

Topic:

Balancing Arm Assembly - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments

Engineering and technical tasks:

Overview

The Balancing Arm Assembly - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments, is an Project, that demonstrates how control concepts taught in engineering Group can applied. The arm itself is rotated by a servo motor, and balances a ball in a position specified by the user (i.e. set point). The servo is controlled by closed-loop PID Proportional Integral Derivate algorithm implemented in LabView. The feedback data is ball position, which is collected from an infrared IR sensor. If the ball is out of position, the difference between the set point and position data from the IR sensor (i.e. error) will be calculated, and the PID loop will correct it over time.

Base Functionality

·         The balance arm is rotated by servo motor, with receives PWM position Data.

·         The position of the ball is measured by an infrared IR sensor

·         The user specifies a position set point on the front panel of the LabView VI

·         The system gradually moves the ball to the position using PID control

·         After building the assembly the user must calibrate the arm by indicating the servo position at with the arm is parallel to the ground

·         Before every use, the user must also calibrate the controller to recognize the minimum and maximum edges of the arm

·         The PID gains are auto-tuned, requiring no input by User

Expansion and Teaching Options

·         Learn how the Balance Arm relates to controls concepts like closed - loop stability, disturbances rejection and performance, and PID controller design

·         Program the balance arm to alternate between two different position set points.

Job description:

The work is an important part of the NICA-MPD Project, carried out in the international research and development centre JINR Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia), Poland has been a member since 1956 and has a significant contribution to its scientific and research achievements.

The work consists in discerning and formulating the needs of a group of specialists from Polish scientific and research institutions, SCS Slow Control System, MPD detector control system and NICA complex. The proposed engineering and technical task combines most of the characteristics of engineering and research work.

Range of tasks to be carried out by the Apprentice:

The Balancing Arm Assembly - Measuring Robot for Great Physics Experiments, model, consisting of prefabricated components and electronic modules, should be designed and developed and programmed in NI LabView. The subject is required to understand the theoretical knowledge and to analyze the topic at the theoretical and practical level. A working prototype (model) is planned. Then, technical analysis of the system and its functionality will be performed. Applications should be used when formulating subsequent technical and functional requirements, the robot's real measuring system. Define the required algorithms and write the software. The apprentice will perform tests and study the work of the finished robot. As a result of the subject matter, a working robot system should be created. At the end, you should give a 15-minute lecture in English about the work done. After the internships (in November 2018) a conference in Warsaw is planned: Slow Control System 2018, in which the Apprentice should take an active part by giving a thematic lecture. The publication of this work is planned.

Note:

It is possible to continue cooperation, for example in the form of an engineering or a master's thesis, as well as further scientific contacts.

Bibliography.

www.jinr.ru

www.ni.com

www.nica.if.pw.edu.pl

The MultiPurpose Detector – MPD to Study Heavy Ion Collisions at NICA; (CDR Conceptual Design Report) Version 1.4;  Project leaders: A. N. Sissakian, A. S. Sorin, V. D. Kekelidze.

Description:

Project: The goal of the project is numerical simulation of various physical processes taking place in electron beam ion sources (EBIS) with special attention devoted to formation and evolution of different instabilities manifested in such kind of sources. Understanding of these processes could allow to improve efficiency of the sources. To perform the necessary simulation, it is planned to develop specialised software utilising particle-in-cell (PIC) method. Such desired PIC code should allow to calculate all electron and ion trajectories in a self-consistent way, taking into account their local space charge dynamics in addition to external static electric and magnetic fields. A practical goal of the project should be simulation of real-time dynamics for EBIS-type ion sources, especially for EBIS working in reflex mode of operation (known as electron string ion sources, ESIS; ESIS invented and developed in JINR; KRION-6T ESIS (JINR) is a prototype of ion source for NICA project).

Required skills: basic Python language

Learning experience: The candidate will learn to make simulation of particle dynamics using specialised software. You will get skills in bash, Python, Jupyter, Git and will learn how to perform computations on JINR supercomputer. For those interested in accelerator science the project is an excellent opportunity to become familiar with basic principles of low-energy beam dynamics taking place at ion sources of many high-energy accelerators. For students willing to advance their programming skills it is possible to participate in code development and get practice in C++ and Python programming.

Supervisor: Alexey Boytsov boytsov@jinr.ru

Website: https://github.com/epicf/ef/wiki

Tasks

If you are willing to concentrate on physics and simulations:

  • Install and configure Ef to perform simulations. Optionally: explore alternatives: Warp, PIConGPU, CST etc.

  • For Ef, find and implement tests comparing numerical simulations with analytical models for low-energy beams in electromagnetic fields. Optionally: perform similar tests in different software.

  • Optionally: for Ef, compare results of numerical simulations with available experimental data.

 

If you are willing to concentrate on programming:

 

  • Understand code organization of Ef.

  • Implement modules for various parts of Ef: different algorithms to solve Poisson’s equation, different time integration schemes, various parsers for files with external fields, etc. Programming language is either Python, or C++, or both.

  • Optionally: understand difference between MPI, OpenMP, CUDA, OpenCL and participate in GPU and/or CPU parallelization of Ef.

Description:

In particle and nuclear physics, a nuclear emulsion plate is a photographic plate with a particularly thick emulsion layer and with a very uniform grain size. Like bubble chambers, cloud chambers, and wire chambers nuclear emulsion plates record the tracks of charged particles passing through. They are compact, have high density and produce a cumulative record, but have the disadvantage that the plates must be developed before the tracks can be observed. Nuclear emulsions can be used to record and investigate fast charged particles like nucleons or mesons. After exposing and developing the plate, single particle tracks can be observed and measured using a microscope.
Using nuclear emulsions exposed on high mountains, Cecil Frank Powell and colleagues discovered the charged pion in 1947. This discovery won them a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1950.
Nuclear track emulsion continues to be an effective technique for pilot studies that allows one, in particular, to study the cluster dissociation of a wide variety of light relativistic nuclei within a common approach. Despite the fact that the capabilities of the relativistic fragmentation for the study of nuclear clustering were recognized quite a long time ago, electronic experiments have not been able to come closer to an integrated analysis of ensembles of relativistic fragments. The continued pause in the investigation of the ‘‘fine’’ structure of relativistic fragmentation has led to resumption of regular exposures of nuclear emulsions in beams of light nuclei produced for the first time at the Nuclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). To date, an analysis of the peripheral interactions of relativistic isotopes of beryllium, boron, carbon and nitrogen, including radioactive ones, with nuclei of the emulsion composition, has been performed, which allows the clustering pattern to be presented for a whole family of light nuclei.
During the practice you will learn how to work with emulsions, find events, make measurements, and get interpretation
For additional materials, please visit our website: http://becquerel.jinr.ru/
Description:

The tau-neutrino is a least studied elementary particle. The knowledge on its interaction is rather restricted as only a few events were registered so far. A precise measurement of its interaction  cross-section would be a test of lepton universality in tau-neutrino scattering and it has also a practical impact to high energy astrophysical tau-neutrino observations and neutrino oscillation measurements. Detection of tau neutrino require a submicrometric detector resolution which can be achieved with the nuclear emulsion detector.

The progress achieved in the nuclear emulsion technique during last years by the OPERA collaboration, allows conducting experiments on further study of the tau neutrino, its production and interactions. At CERN, the SHIP experiment is planning to have thousands of tau neutrino detected in a few years. Another project, DsTau, aims at a study of tau-neutrino production with compact emulsion detector in high energy proton interactions (arXiv:1708.09700; CERN-SPSC-2017-029 (SPSC-P-354). Ds mesons, the source of tau-neutrino, following high energy proton interactions will be studied by a novel approach to detect the double-kink topology of the decays  Ds → τ ντ , τ → ντ X. The direct measurement of Ds → τ decays will provide an inclusive measurement of the Ds production and decay branching ratio to tau-lepton. The momentum reconstruction of Ds will be performed by combining topological variables. This project aims at the detection of about 10^3 Ds → τ decays in 2.3×10^8 proton interactions by using a tungsten target to study the differential production cross-section of Ds mesons. To achieve this, state of the art emulsion detectors with a nanometric-precision readout will be used. The data generated by this project will allow for the ντ cross section from DONUT to be re-evaluated, and the expected outcome will significantly reduce the total systematic uncertainty. Furthermore, these results will provide essential input into future ντ experiments such as the ντ program in the SHiP project at CERN. In addition, the analysis of 2.3×10^8 proton interactions on an event by event basis, combined with the expected high statistics (10^5 charmed decay products), will allow us to extract many additional physical quantities.
Test exposure was done in 2017, the data collected during exposure are being processed, also Monte Carlo data generated with FLUKA is available. Preparation to the first step of experiment (Run1 -2018 exposure aimed to collect 20% of the experimental data) is ongoing. There are several tasks related to data and Monte Carlo analysis available for students during summer practice depending on student skills and interests: simulation based on PYTHIA8 and GEANT4; comparison of test exposure data and Monte Carlo aiming to check their agreement and tuning of Monte Carlo model; estimation of expected signal and background; development of algorithm on signal/background separation; development of algorithms on vertex reconstruction. The minimal required skills are: C++, ROOT. Optional skills: GEANT4, FLUKA, PYTHIA.

More details about the project: http://dstau.lhep.unibe.ch/
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